They made mutual declarations of love in December in Zwickau, where Clara appeared in concert. " His contract was eventually terminated. In 1845 he began another symphony, No. " It was an extraordinary way to present Brahms to the musical world, setting up great expectations that he did not fulfill for many years. Partly through his protégé Brahms, Schumann's ideals and musical vocabulary became widely disseminated. Their marriage supported a remarkable business partnership, with Clara acting as an inspiration, critic, and confidante to her husband. President, Royal Musical Association, 1970–74. She returned to London in 1865 and made regular appearances there in later years, often performing chamber music with the violinist Joseph Joachim and others. Brahms amazed Clara and Robert with his music, stayed with them for several weeks, and became a close family friend. 114 ZEMLINSKY: Trio for Clarinet, Violoncello and Piano in D minor, Op. Besides the single note sounding in his ear (possibly evidence of tinnitus,) he imagined that voices sounded in his ear and he heard angelic music. These characters bled into his editorial writing in the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik (New Journal for Music), a Leipzig-based publication that he co-founded.  According to studies by the musicologist and literary scholar Eric Sams, Schumann's symptoms during his terminal illness and death appear consistent with those of mercury poisoning; mercury was a common treatment for syphilis and other conditions. 3 Tickets . 81, premiered in Spring 1850.  In particular, meningiomas are known to produce musical auditory hallucinations such as Schumann reported. On February 26 he asked to be taken to a lunatic asylum, and the next day he attempted suicide by drowning. Concerto for Piano no 1 in C minor, Op. The original titles of the movements were Ruins, Triumphal Arch, and The Starry Crown. The work—described as "one of the peaks of the piano literature, lofty in conception and faultless in workmanship" [Hutcheson]—was dedicated to the young English composer William Sterndale Bennett, for whom Schumann had had a high regard when they worked together in Leipzig. 1, Variations on the name "Abegg" in F, Op. Many of his best-known piano pieces were written for his wife, the pianist Clara Schumann. It was a form of tinnitus, or perhaps an auditory hallucination related to his major depressive episode. Robert Schumann and Clara Schumann at the piano. 81 (103) Variations on a theme by Haydn (116) Hungarian Dances (21) for Orchestra, WoO 1 (10) In late February 1854, Schumann's symptoms increased, the angelic visions sometimes being replaced by demonic ones. SCHUMANN Piano Concerto. 102. , Kreisleriana, Op. Other notable works included Symphony No. By 1852 a general deterioration of his nervous system was becoming apparent. 98 (2) Next page. In 1846, he felt he had recovered. , After Robert's death, Clara continued her career as a concert pianist, which supported the family. In 1834 Schumann became engaged to Ernestine von Fricken, but, long before the engagement was formally broken off (January 1, 1836), he fell in love with 16-year-old Clara Wieck. Schumann suffered from a mental disorder that first manifested in 1833 as a severe melancholic depressive episode—which recurred several times alternating with phases of "exaltation" and increasingly also delusional ideas of being poisoned or threatened with metallic items. His best-known works include Carnaval, Symphonic Studies, Kinderszenen, Kreisleriana, and the Fantasie in C. Schumann was known for infusing his music with characters through motifs, as well as references to works of literature. A genius! His only opera, Genoveva, Op. He composed four symphonies, one opera, and other orchestral, choral, and chamber works. From 1850 to 1854, Schumann composed in a wide variety of genres. BRAHMS: Piano Concerto No. In 1840 Schumann returned to a field he had neglected for nearly 12 years, that of the solo song; in the space of 11 months (February–December 1840) he composed nearly all the songs on which much of his reputation rests: the cycles Myrthen (Myrtles), the two Liederkreise (Song-Cycles) on texts by Heinrich Heine and Joseph Eichendorff, Dichterliebe (Poet’s Love) and Frauenliebe und Leben (Woman’s Love and Life), and many separate songs. Clara Schumann - Variations on a theme of Robert Schumann for piano in F sharp minor, Op 20: 01:05: Johannes Brahms - Symphony No 2 in D, Op 73: 00:45: Clara Schumann - Piano Concerto in A minor, Op 7: 00:31: Johannes Brahms - Tragic Overture, Op 81: 00:26: Emily Hall - Fields of Snow: 00:18: Giuseppe Martucci - Notturno in G flat major, Op. Wieck claimed that Schumann damaged his finger by using a mechanical device that held back one finger while he exercised the others—which was supposed to strengthen the weakest fingers. Robert Schumann (German: ; 8 June 1810 – 29 July 1856) was a German composer, pianist, and influential music critic.He is widely regarded as one of the greatest composers of the Romantic era. 35 (58) Concerto for Violin no 1 in A minor, Op. (He later worked closely with Clara to popularize Schumann's compositions during her long widowhood.). He also began to seriously study piano with Friedrick Wieck, a well-known piano teacher. He never surpassed the searching beauty of the slow movements (Nos. A lifelong partnership in music began, as Clara herself was an established pianist and music prodigy. According to Franz Liszt, who played the work for Schumann and to whom it was dedicated, the Fantasie was apt to be played too heavily, and should have a dreamier (träumerisch) character than vigorous German pianists tended to impart. 6, (also published in 1837 despite the low opus number) literally "Dances of the League of David", is an embodiment of the struggle between enlightened Romanticism and musical philistinism. After this the orchestral impulse was temporarily spent. BEETHOVEN Symphony No. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest composers of the Romantic era. In 1841 he wrote two of his four symphonies, No. Experience the sights and sounds of live Seattle Symphony performances in high-definition video and high-fidelity streaming audio from the comfort of your living room or on the go! It must suffice to say that it is Schumann's greatest work in large form for piano solo. Please select which sections you would like to print: While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. His most powerful and permanent literary inspiration was Jean Paul, a German writer whose influence is seen in Schumann's youthful novels Juniusabende, completed in 1826, and Selene. 9 in C, in 1839 Schumann wrote the Faschingsschwank aus Wien (Carnival Prank from Vienna). 1, Sonata No. The critics received Robert's music coolly, with Henry Fothergill Chorley being particularly harsh. In 1851 he revised what would be published as his fourth symphony. The Op. Another possibility is that his neurological problems were the result of an intracranial mass. In 1840, after a long and acrimonious legal battle with Wieck, who opposed the marriage, Schumann married Wieck's daughter Clara. In 1843 he wrote Paradise and the Peri, his first attempt at concerted vocal music, an oratorio style work based on Lalla-Rookh by Thomas Moore. Schumann had by now entered upon one of his most fertile creative periods, producing a series of imaginative works for piano. This inspiration is foreshadowed to some extent in his first written criticism—an 1831 essay on Frédéric Chopin's variations on a theme from Mozart's Don Giovanni, published in the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung. He devoted 1842 to composing chamber music, including the Piano Quintet in E-flat, Op. 80 (90) Tragic Overture, Op. From mid-career on, she mainly performed music by leading composers. They married in 1840—despite her father’s objections—and had eight children. Under family pressure, he entered the University of Leipzig to study law in 1828, while taking piano lessons with Friedrich Wieck. THE COMPANY'S REPERTORY EXCEEDS 400 BALLETS, APPROXIMATELY 60 OF WHICH ARE DANCED DURING AN ANNUAL SEASON. Here is a real field for enterprise ... something simple, profound, German". In Zwickau, the music was performed at a concert given by Clara Wieck, who was then just 13 years old.  In it, Schumann attempted to abolish recitative, which he regarded as an interruption to the musical flow (an influence on Richard Wagner; Schumann's consistently flowing melody can be seen as a forerunner to Wagner's Melos). Britannica now has a site just for parents! Schumann’s attempts to obtain posts in Leipzig and Vienna had also been abortive, and in the end he accepted the post of municipal director of music at Düsseldorf. They call on a third, Meister Raro, for his opinion. In 1828 Schumann left school and, under family pressure, reluctantly entered the University of Leipzig as a law student. Carnaval, Op. Prior to the legal case and subsequent marriage, the lovers exchanged love letters and rendezvoused in secret. 15 (134) Concerto for Piano no 2 in B flat major, Op. The boy immediately developed a love of music, and worked on his own compositions, without the aid of Kuntzsch. Schumann's interest in music was sparked by attending a performance of Ignaz Moscheles playing at Karlsbad, and he later developed an interest in the works of Beethoven, Schubert, and Mendelssohn. He died there in 1856. Johannes Kreisler was a fictional musician created by poet E. T. A. Hoffmann, and characterized as a "romantic brought into contact with reality." 3 in F minor, Op. 39 (depicting a series of moods relating to or inspired by nature); the Frauenliebe und -leben of Chamisso, Op. 102 (87) Academic Festival Overture in C minor, Op. Schumann left the study of law, intending to pursue a career as a virtuoso pianist. In the days leading up to his suicide attempt, Schumann wrote five variations on this theme for the piano, his last completed work, today known as the Geistervariationen (Ghost Variations). On 3 October 1835, Schumann met Felix Mendelssohn at Wieck's house in Leipzig, and his enthusiastic appreciation of that artist was shown with the same generous freedom that distinguished his acknowledgement of the greatness of Chopin and other colleagues, and later prompted him to publicly pronounce the then-unknown Johannes Brahms a genius. His father, who had encouraged his musical aspirations, died in 1826 when Schumann was 16. Robert Schumann began studying the piano at age six. 35, 40 and 98a sets (words by Justinus Kerner, Chamisso and Goethe respectively), although less well known, also contain songs of lyric and dramatic quality. 3, all from 1853, have entered the repertoire. Updates? He also conducted eight subscription concerts, but his shortcomings as a conductor became obvious, and in 1853 he lost his post as music director at Düsseldorf. The first few months of 1844 were spent on a concert tour of Russia with Clara, which depressed Schumann by making him conscious of his inferior role. No. This is evident in Widmung, for example, where he uses the melody from Schubert's Ave Maria in the postlude in homage to Clara. The insurrection of Dresden caused Schumann to move to Kreischa, a little village a few miles outside the city. It has been the favourite encore of several great pianists, including Vladimir Horowitz. 15, completed in 1838 and a favourite of Schumann's piano works, depicts the innocence and playfulness of childhood. The Bund was a music society of Schumann's imagination, members of which were kindred spirits (as he saw them) such as Chopin, Paganini and Clara, as well as the personalized Florestan and Eusebius. Later, he composed piano and orchestral works, and many Lieder (songs for voice and piano). 77 (58) Concerto for Cello no 1 in E flat major, Op. He fell in love with Wieck’s gifted daughter, Clara. 102, String Quartet No. 2, 4, 6) or the urgent passion of others (Nos. Applicants will play: a complete J. Liszt also said: "It is a noble work, worthy of Beethoven, whose career, by the way, it is supposed to represent". The march, a step nearly always in duple meter, is here in 3/4 time (triple meter). Robert Schumann’s father was a bookseller and publisher. In 1837 Schumann published his Symphonic Studies, a complex set of étude-like variations written in 1834–1835, which demanded a finished piano technique. 129; Cello Concerto in A minor, Op. ... Six Evolutions - Bach: Cello Suites Yo-Yo Ma $15.45 $ 15.  One night he suddenly left his bed, having dreamt or imagined that a ghost (purportedly the spirit of either Schubert or Mendelssohn) had dictated a "spirit theme" to him. Liszt gave him assistance and encouragement.  In January 1854, Schumann went to Hanover, where he heard a performance of his Paradise and the Peri organized by Joachim and Brahms. The strain of this long courtship and its consummation may have led to this great outpouring of Lieder (vocal songs with piano accompaniment). After this, his compositions were not confined to any one form during any particular period. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). October 17, 2020 ... BEETHOVEN Triple Concerto for Violin, Cello, and Piano HAYDN Symphony No. On 30 September 1853, the 20-year-old composer Johannes Brahms arrived unannounced at the door of the Schumanns carrying a letter of introduction from violinist Joseph Joachim. Classical music is hard to define in specific terms, but it is generally understood to be music rooted in Western European traditions performed by trained musicians in formal settings like concert halls, opera houses, and churches. The couple were finally married in 1840 after Schumann had gone to court to set aside Wieck’s legal objection to the marriage. 4 in D minor (the latter a pioneering work in "cyclic form", was performed that year but published only much later after revision and extensive re-orchestration as Op. Two years after their marriage, Friedrich Wieck at last reconciled himself with the couple, eager to see his grandchildren. After a long and acrimonious legal battle with her father, Schumann married Clara Wieck on 12 September 1840, at Schönefeld, the day before her 21st birthday. Rescued by boatmen and taken home, he asked to be taken to an asylum for the insane. December 19, 2020 - 7:35pm Ricardo Garcia, tenor BEETHOVEN Symphony No. In 1854, after attempting suicide by drowning, he was sent to a private asylum, where he died two and a half years later at the age of 46, though the exact cause is debated. 44, now one of his best known and most admired works; the Piano Quartet and three string quartets. Schumann left the study of law, intending to pursue a career as a virtuoso pianist. In the winter, the Schumanns revisited Vienna, traveling to Prague and Berlin in the spring of 1847 and in the summer to Zwickau, where he was received with enthusiasm. The Universal Journal of Music 1850 supplement included a biographical sketch of Schumann that noted, "It has been related that Schumann, as a child, possessed rare taste and talent for portraying feelings and characteristic traits in melody,—ay, he could sketch the different dispositions of his intimate friends by certain figures and passages on the piano so exactly and comically that everyone burst into loud laughter at the similitude of the portrait.". In August 1849, on the occasion of the centenary of Goethe's birth, completed scenes of Schumann's Scenes from Goethe's Faust were performed in Dresden, Leipzig and Weimar. Schumann wrote most of Faschingsschwank while on a visit to Vienna, during which he unearthed a number of manuscripts by Franz Schubert, including that of the Symphony in C Major (The Great). He also promoted the work of some contemporary composers, including Chopin (about whom Schumann famously wrote, "Hats off, Gentlemen! 70, Three Romances for oboe and piano, Op. Third movement, “Sehr lebhaft” (“Very lively”), of Robert Schumann's. In 1828, Schumann left high school, and after a trip during which he met the poet Heinrich Heine in Munich, he left to study law at the University of Leipzig under family pressure. With her permission, by Christmas he was back in Leipzig, at age 20 taking piano lessons from his old master Friedrich Wieck, who assured him that he would be a successful concert pianist after a few years' study with him. His teacher, Friedrich Wieck, a German pianist, had assured him that he could become the finest pianist in Europe, but a hand injury ended this dream. As early as 1842 the possibilities of German opera had been keenly realized by Schumann, who wrote, "Do you know my prayer as an artist, night and morning? 98 (at the Adagio coda, taken from the last song of the cycle). 1 in A minor, Op. 14 "Concerto without orchestra", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Robert_Schumann&oldid=1001876060, University of Music and Theatre Leipzig faculty, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2010, Wikipedia articles incorporating the Cite Grove template, Wikipedia articles incorporating the Cite Grove template with a url parameter, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Articles with dead external links from April 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with International Music Score Library Project links, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 21 January 2021, at 20:16. On 27 February, he attempted suicide by throwing himself from a bridge into the Rhine River (his elder sister Emilie had committed suicide in 1825, possibly by drowning herself). According to Hutcheson ("The Literature of the Piano"), this work is "among the finest efforts of Schumann's genius. An injury ended his hopes of a career as a virtuoso, confining him to writing compositions, the first of which were published in 1831. His musical powers had also declined by the late 1840s, though some of his works still display flashes of his former genius. 1 in B-flat Major, which was immediately performed under the composer Felix Mendelssohn at Leipzig; an Overture, Scherzo, and Finale (April–May); a Phantasie for piano and orchestra (May), which was expanded into the famous Piano Concerto in A Minor by the addition of two more movements in 1845; another symphony, in D minor (June–September); and sketches for an uncompleted third symphony, in C minor. Op.129 I-Catalogue Number I-Cat. Robert Schumann was a German Romantic composer renowned particularly for his piano music, lieder (songs), and orchestral music. Seattle Symphony Live. , Schumann had considerable influence in the nineteenth century and beyond, despite his adoption of more conservative modes of composition after his marriage. Two years later at Schumann's request, the work received its first English performance conducted by William Sterndale Bennett. For the French statesman and founding father of the European Union, see, According to Daverio, there is no evidence of the middle name "Alexander" that appears in some sources, Robert Schumann's "Artikel Neue Bahnen", 28 October 1853. As soon as he began to work, he was seized with fits of shivering and an apprehension of death, experiencing an abhorrence of high places, all metal instruments (even keys), and drugs. The stamps were soon replaced by a pair featuring music written by Schumann. , Kinderszenen, Op. 2. 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