He rapidly abolished numerous enemy daimyo houses, reduced others (such as that of the Toyotomi), and redistributed the spoils of war to his family and allies. Credit is due under the terms of this license that can reference both the New World Encyclopedia contributors and the selfless volunteer contributors of the Wikimedia Foundation. Although the class system was influenced by neo-Confucianism, it was not identical to it. Ieyasu's victory over the western daimyō at the Battle of Sekigahara (October 21, 1600, or in the Japanese calendar on the 15th day of the ninth month of the fifth year of the Keichō era) gave him control of all Japan. ), or Tokugawa period (徳川時代 Tokugawa jidai? Despite the reappearance of guilds, economic activities went well beyond the restrictive nature of the guilds, and commerce spread and a money economy developed. New laws were developed, and new administrative devices were instituted. In this way, a subtle subversion of the warrior class by the chōnin took place. Debate over government policy was unusual and had engendered public criticism of the bakufu. Sometimes eta villages were not even included on official maps. A few upper samurai were eligible for high office; most were foot soldiers. The "Christian problem" was, in effect, a problem of controlling both the Christian daimyō in Kyūshū and their trade with the Europeans. French naval engineers were hired to build naval arsenals, such as Yokosuka and Nagasaki. Internal wars and power shifts were very frequent, especially during the late 15th century to the end of the 16th century (called Sengoku Jidai, or warring period). In July of 1846, when Commodore James Biddle appeared in Edo Bay with two warships, Japan rejected a demand from the United States, which was expanding its own presence in the Asia-Pacific region, to establish diplomatic relations. A final crisis was provoked when the United States forced Japan to open its ports, and the daimyo became divided over how to deal with the threat of foreign colonization. Edo Period Japan – the Shogun Oda Nobunaga (1500s, painted by Kanō Motohide) Oda Nobunaga At the end of the Muromachi period , Japan … In this way, a subtle subversion of the warrior class by the chōnin took place. Already a powerful daimyō (feudal lord), Ieyasu profited by his transfer to the rich Kantō area. A naval training school was established in Nagasaki in 1855.  Overall, while commerce (domestic and international) was vibrant and sophisticated financial services had developed in the Edo period, the shogunate remained ideologically focused on honest agricultural work as the basis of society and never sought to develop a mercantile or capitalistic country. Foreign naval retaliation in the Anglo-Satsuma War led to still another concessionary commercial treaty in 1865, but Yoshitomi was unable to enforce the Western treaties. , A style called tsuma moyō had rich decoration from the waist down only, and family emblems on the neck and shoulders. Although the Edo Period is marked by security and stability and an increase in the size of the population, the era was not without its peasant revolts (ikki) and social discontent in times of local droughts and famines. The period marks the governance of the Edo or Tokugawa shogunate, which was officially established in 1603 by the first Edo shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu.The period ended with the Meiji Restoration, the restoration of imperial rule by the fifteenth and last … Director: Shôhei Imamura | Stars: Shigeru Izumiya, Kaori Momoi, Masao Kusakari, Ken Ogata. When the shogun died without an heir, Nariaki appealed to the court for support of his own son, Tokugawa Yoshinobu (or Keiki), a candidate favored by the shinpan and tozama daimyo as shogun. More restrictions came in 1616 (the restriction of foreign trade to Nagasaki and Hirado, an island northwest of Kyūshū), 1622 (the execution of 120 missionaries and converts), 1624 (the expulsion of the Spanish), and 1629 (the execution of thousands of Christians). The Edo period ushered Japan into an era of wealth and relative peace, during which the arts flourished. Loyalty was exacted from religious foundations, already greatly weakened by Nobunaga and Hideyoshi, through a variety of control mechanisms. Also known as the Tokugawa period due to the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate, the Edo period followed the Sengoku period where warlords fought for control of Japan, and succeeded the Momogama period (1573-1615). Most samurai lost their direct possession of the land: the daimyō took over their land. Eta were butchers, tanners and undertakers. After the naval training school was established in Nagasaki in 1855, naval students were sent to study in Western naval schools for several years, starting a tradition of foreign-educated future leaders, such as Admiral Enomoto Takeaki. A distinct culture known as chōnindō ("the way of the townspeople") emerged in cities such as Osaka, Kyoto, and Edo. The new treaty with the United States in 1859 allowed more ports to be opened to diplomatic representatives, unsupervised trade at four additional ports, and foreign residences in Osaka and Edo. The daimyō did have full administrative control over their territory and their complex systems of retainers, bureaucrats and commoners. , Ladies fashion in 1700s by Utagawa Toyokuni. Kokugaku contributed to the emperor-centered nationalism of modern Japan and the revival of Shinto as a national creed in the 18th and 19th centuries. Although not as powerful politically as it had been in the past, Buddhism was espoused by the upper classes. Tokugawa Ieyasu besieges. Their families had to reside in Edo, and the daimyo themselves had to reside alternately in Edo for one year, and in their province (han) for the next.  The bakufu and daimyos raised taxes on farmers, but did not tax business, so they too fell into debt, with some merchants specializing in loaning to daimyos. The chairman of the senior councillors, Abe Masahiro (1819–1857), was responsible for dealing with the Americans. Foreign naval retaliation in the Anglo-Satsuma War led to still another concessionary commercial treaty in 1865, but Yoshitomi was unable to enforce the Western treaties. A few descendants of the Imperial Court in Kyoto, the kuge, were above the system. In the Edo (江) or Tokugawa (徳) period between 1603 to 1868, Japan was under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate, a form of military rule headed by the shogun. In the nineteenth century, the dominant figure was Hiroshige, a creator of romantic and somewhat sentimental landscape prints.  Osaka and Kyoto each had more than 400,000 inhabitants. By the eighteenth century, 145 fudai controlled such smaller han, the largest assessed at 250,000 koku. Edo (Tokyo) was made the capital of Japan by the Tokugawa shogunate. The founder of the new bakufu was Tokugawa Ieyasu, who benefited from the achievements of Oda Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi in bringing most of the feudal domains of Japan under central control. During this time, three leaders aspired to unify Japan; one of these leaders was Oda Nobunaga (織田 信長). , The first shogun Ieyasu set up Confucian academies in his shinpan domains and other daimyos followed suit in their own domains, establishing what's known as han schools (藩校, hankō). It was during the Edo period that Japan developed an advanced forest management policy. The devalued price for gold in Japan was one immediate, enormous effect. As the Edo period came to an end a great diversity of genres proliferated: warriors, nature, folklore, and the landscapes of Hokusai and Hiroshige. have suggested that there were more events that spurred this opening of Japan. The edo period brought back a lot of classic architectural techniques. Ninety-seven han formed the third group, the tozama (outside vassals), former opponents or new allies. Rangaku became crucial not only in understanding the foreign "barbarians" but also in using the knowledge gained from the West to fend them off. Especially samurai and wealthy merchants competed to buy inro of high artistic value. To ensure a close tie between the imperial clan and the Tokugawa family, Ieyasu's granddaughter was made an imperial consort in 1619. They had power. Votes: 513. After further strengthening his power base, Ieyasu installed his son Hidetada (1579–1632) as shōgun and himself as retired shōgun in 1605. In the centuries from the time of the Kamakura bakufu, which existed in equilibrium with the imperial court, to the Tokugawa shogunate, an evolution occurred in which the bushi (samurai class) became the unchallenged rulers in what historian Edwin O. Reischauer called a "centralized feudal" form of government. Having no precedent to manage this threat to national security, Abe tried to balance the desires of the senior councillors to compromise with the foreigners, of the emperor who wanted to keep the foreigners out, and of the daimyō who wanted to go to war. It encouraged aspiration to bushido qualities of diligence, honesty, honor, loyalty, and frugality, while blending Shinto, neo-Confucian, and Buddhist beliefs. In the battle of Sekigahara in 1600, Ieyasu defeated the Hideyori loyalists and other Western rivals.  However, their cultural and societal impact, including some forms of discrimination, continues into modern times. The Tokugawa became more powerful during their first century of rule: land redistribution gave them nearly seven million koku, control of the most important cities, and a land assessment system reaping great revenues. Structures were simple and classy, and like the Hein period, their respect for nature took a great deal for the architectural way of construscting. Instrumental in the rise of the new bakufu was Tokugawa Ieyasu, the main beneficiary of the achievements of Oda Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Some purists in the kokugaku movement, such as Motoori Norinaga, even criticized the Confucian and Buddhist influences—in effect, foreign influences—for contaminating Japan's ancient ways. A number of ryotei also opened to serve high-class food. Hanley, S. B. At the beginning of the Edo period, Japan built her first ocean-going Western-style warships, such as the Japanese warship San Juan Bautista, a 500-ton galleon that transported a Japanese embassy headed by Hasekura Tsunenaga to the Americas then to Europe. The art from this period of Japan’s history was simple but the detail they had put into their art is truly a treat for the eye. The cause for the end of this period is controversial but is recounted as the forcing of Japan's opening to the world by Commodore Matthew Perry of the US Navy, whose armada (known by Japanese as "the black ships") fired weapons from Edo Bay. More restrictions came in 1616 (the restriction of foreign trade to Nagasaki and Hirado, an island northwest of Kyūshū), 1622 (the execution of 120 missionaries and converts), 1624 (the expulsion of the Spanish), and 1629 (the execution of thousands of Christians). He maintained two million koku of land, a new headquarters at Edo, a strategically situated castle town (the future Tokyo), and also had an additional two million koku of land and thirty-eight vassals under his control. The Treaty of Amity and Commerce Between the U.S. and Japan (Harris Treaty), opening still more areas to American trade, was forced on the bakufu five years later. The daimyos operated several hundred castle towns, which became loci of domestic trade. Only a few land samurai remained in the border provinces of the north, or as direct vassals of the shōgun, the 5,000 so-called hatamoto. to the land of the gods and the Emperor This system of thought increased attention to a secular view of man and society. It encouraged aspiration to bushido qualities—diligence, honesty, honor, loyalty, and frugality—while blending Shinto, neo-Confucian, and Buddhist beliefs. Although the Japanese made some minor concessions and allowed some landings, they generally attempted to keep all foreigners out, sometimes using force. In March 1854, the Treaty of Peace and Amity (or Treaty of Kanagawa) opened two ports to American ships seeking provisions, guaranteed good treatment to shipwrecked American sailors, and allowed a United States consul to take up residence in Shimoda, a seaport on the Izu Peninsula, southwest of Edo. Many samurai fell on hard times and were forced into handicraft production or working at salaried jobs for merchants. The fudai won the power struggle, however, installing Tokugawa Yoshitomi, arresting Nariaki and Keiki, executing Yoshida Shōin (1830–1859), a leading sonnō-jōi intellectual who had opposed the American treaty and plotted a revolution against the bakufu), and signing treaties with the United States and five other nations, thus ending more than 200 years of exclusion. The daimyo had full administrative control over their territory and their complex systems of retainers, bureaucrats, and commoners. Other persecution of the hinin included disallowing them from wearing robes longer than knee-length and the wearing of hats. Although each level of government, from the Bakufu down, imposed taxes on those beneath it, it was the annual rice yields that formed the basis of taxation and therefore underpinned the economy. The Tokugawa not only consolidated their control over a reunified Japan, they also had unprecedented power over the emperor, the court, all daimyo, and the religious orders. They produced their works under the patronage of wealthy merchants newly emerging from the economic development of this period. the agitation over thread Already powerful, Tokugawa Ieyasu transferred his headquarters to Edo (modern Tokyo), a strategically situated castle in the rich Kanto area. He raised taxes, denounced luxuries and tried to impede the growth of business; he failed and it appeared to many that the continued existence of the entire Tokugawa system was in jeopardy.. , The merchants benefited enormously, especially those with official patronage. The Mito school—based on neo-Confucian and Shinto principles—had as its goal the restoration of the imperial institution, the turning back of the West, and the founding of a world empire under the divine Yamato dynasty. By 1700, it was the largest city on the world, with a population of 1,200,000, compared to 800,000 in London and 500,000 in Paris at that time. Proscriptions against Christianity benefited Buddhism in 1640 when the bakufu ordered everyone to register at a temple. Edo society had an elaborate social structure, in which every family knew its place and level of prestige. A French military mission was established to help modernize the armies of the bakufu. Eta were butchers, tanners and undertakers. The period ended with the Meiji Restoration, the restoration of imperial rule by the fifteenth and last shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu.  The eighth Tokugawa shogun, Yoshimune (in office 1716–1745) had considerable success, though much of his work had to be done again between 1787 and 1793 by the shogun's chief councilor Matsudaira Sadanobu (1759–1829). 1854: The US forces Japan to sign a trade agreement (". During the last years, the bakufu took strong measures to try to reassert its dominance, although its involvement with modernization and foreign powers made it a target of anti-Western sentiment throughout the country. The shogun had 17,000 samurai retainers; the daimyo each had hundreds. Most were ineffective and only worked in some areas. This system was called sankin-kōtai.  Peasant unrest grew, and by the late 18th century, mass protests over taxes and food shortages had become commonplace. Resistance continued in the North throughout 1868, and the bakufu naval forces under Admiral Enomoto Takeaki continued to hold out for another six months in Hokkaidō, where they founded the short-lived Republic of Ezo. For the first time, urban populations had the means and leisure time to support a new mass culture. Art, Music, Literature, Sports and leisure, https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/p/index.php?title=Edo_period&oldid=1045193, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License, 1600: Battle of Sekigahara. This system of thought promoted a secular view of man and society. Advanced studies and growing applications of neo-Confucianism contributed to the transition of the social and political order from feudal norms to class- and large-group-oriented practices. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'newworldencyclopedia_org-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_3',167,'0','0']));eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'newworldencyclopedia_org-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_4',167,'0','1']));eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'newworldencyclopedia_org-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_5',167,'0','2'])); Buddhism and Shinto were both still important in Tokugawa Japan. In today's world  High rates of urban literacy in Edo Japan contributed to the prevalence of novels and other literary forms. Many other castle towns grew as well. This art of woodcut polychrome knows its heyday between the late 18th and early 19th-century thanks to two large undisputed masters such as Hokusai and Hiroshige. It is at the beginning of the Edo period that Japan built its first ocean-going Western-style warships, such as the San Juan Bautista, a 500-ton galleon-type ship that transported a Japanese embassy headed by Hasekura Tsunenaga to the Americas and then to Europe.  In urban areas, children are often taught by masterless samurai, while in rural areas priests from Buddhist temples or Shinto shrines often did the teaching. It created a balance of power that remained (fairly) stable for the next 250 years, influenced by Confucian principles of social order. Whereas soldiers and clergy were at the bottom of the hierarchy in the Chinese model, in Japan, some members of these classes constituted the ruling elite. Japanese adventurers, such as Yamada Nagamasa, used those ships throughout Asia. The code encompassed private conduct, marriage, dress, types of weapons and numbers of troops allowed; required feudal lords to reside in Edo every other year (the sankin-kōtai system); prohibited the construction of ocean-going ships; proscribed Christianity; restricted castles to one per domain (han) and stipulated that bakufu regulations were the national law. It also embodied the concept of extraterritoriality (foreigners were subject to the laws of their own countries but not to Japanese law).  To keep up with growing expenditures, the bakufu and daimyos often encouraged commercial crops and artifacts within their domains, from textiles to tea. A bakufu army was defeated when it was sent to crush dissent in the Satsuma and Chōshū Domains in 1866. Most samurai lost direct possession of the land; all land ownership was concentrated in the hand of the about three hundred daimyo. This represented a new unity in the feudal structure, which featured an increasingly large bureaucracy to administer the mixture of centralized and decentralized authorities. The second class of the hierarchy were the fudai, or "house daimyō", rewarded with lands close to the Tokugawa holdings for their faithful service. The upper strata was much given to elaborate and expensive rituals, including elegant architecture, landscaped gardens, Noh drama, patronage of the arts, and the tea ceremony.. Especially in Edo, residences of daimyo (feudal lords) of each domain were gathered, and many gardeners existed to manage these gardens, which led to the development of horticultural techniques. The kokugaku movement emerged from the interactions of these two belief systems. Music and theater were influenced by the social gap between the noble and commoner classes, and different arts became more defined as this gap widened. Better means of crop production, transport, housing, food, and entertainment were all available, as was more leisure time, at least for urban dwellers. Chōnindō (the way of the townspeople) was a distinct culture that arose in cities such as Osaka, Kyoto, and Edo. Most lived in modest homes near their lord's headquarters, and lived off of hereditary rights and stipends. Newly landless families became tenant farmers, while the displaced rural poor moved into the cities. The flourishing of Neo-Confucianism was the major intellectual development of the Tokugawa period.  Established in 1617 as the city's shogunate-sanctioned prostitution district, it kept this designation about 250 years. Members of the fudai class staffed most of the major bakufu offices. Japan turned down a demand from the United States, which was greatly expanding its own presence in the Asia-Pacific region, to establish diplomatic relations when Commodore James Biddle appeared in Edo Bay with two warships in July 1846. Confucian studies had long been kept active in Japan by Buddhist clerics, but during the Tokugawa period, Confucianism emerged from Buddhist religious control. Rice paddies grew from 1.6 million chō in 1600 to 3 million by 1720. Professional female entertainers (geisha), music, popular stories, kabuki and bunraku (puppet theater), poetry, literature and art, exemplified by beautiful woodblock prints (known as ukiyo-e), were all part of this flowering of culture. For example, Matsudaira Sadatomo produced 300 varieties of iris and published a technical book. , Inro and netsuke became popular as accessories among men. The political system evolved into what historians call bakuhan, a combination of the terms bakufu and han (domains) to describe the government and society of the period. 1855: Russia and Japan establish diplomatic relations. The Tokugawa (or Edo) period brought 250 years of stability to Japan. Finally, Ieyasu Tokugawa unified the country after the decisive Battle of Sekigahara (located between Nagoya and Kyoto, visible from Shinkansen) in 1600 and the attac… The Shimabara Rebellion of 1637-1638, in which discontented Catholic samurai and peasants rebelled against the bakufu and Edo called in Dutch ships to bombard the rebel stronghold, marked the end of the Christian movement, although some Christians survived by going underground, the so-called Kakure Kirishitan.  Each daimyo also had a capital city, located near the one castle they were allowed to maintain. From 1716 to 1745 Yoshimune (eighth Tokugawa shōgun from 1716 to 1745) started the first Kyōhō reforms in an attempt to gain more revenue for the government. In 1855, a naval training school with Dutch instructors was set up at Nagasaki, and a Western-style military school was established at Edo; by the next year, the government was translating Western books. , In the first part of the Edo period, Japan experienced rapid demographic growth, before leveling off at around 30 million. Although Buddhism was not as politically powerful as it had been in the past, Buddhism continued to be espoused by the upper classes. The main areas that were studied included geography, medicine, natural sciences, astronomy, art, languages, physical sciences such as the study of electrical phenomena, and mechanical sciences as exemplified by the development of Japanese clockwatches, or wadokei, inspired by Western techniques. In 1636 the Dutch were restricted to Dejima, a small artificial island, and thus, not true Japanese soil, in the harbor at Nagasaki. The feudal hierarchy was completed by the various classes of daimyō. Despite the reappearance of guilds, productive economic activities were relatively unrestricted, and the spread of commerce gave rise to a money economy. Each person had a distinct place in society and was expected to work to fulfill his or her mission in life. Edo culture, Cultural period of Japanese history corresponding to the Tokugawa period of governance (1603–1867). Tokugawa Ieyasu sieges Osaka Castle, all opposition from forces loyal to the Toyotomi family. The Imperial Eras proclaimed during the Edo Period were:. Since there was very little fighting, they became civil servants paid by the daimyo, with minor duties. To raise money, the daimyo used forward contracts to sell rice that was not yet harvested, similar to modern futures trading.  The wealth of merchants gave them a degree of prestige and even power over the daimyos. The people were to be ruled with benevolence by those whose assigned duty it was to rule. The construction trades flourished, along with banking facilities and merchant associations. Edoperioden (andra shogunatet) var en period i Japans historia mellan åren 1603 och 1868 då klanen Tokugawa (徳川幕府) hade makten. Tokugawa period (1603–1867), the final period of traditional Japan, a time of peace, stability, and growth under the shogunate founded by Tokugawa Ieyasu. Another group of outsiders was made up of entertainers and prostitutes. Edo, formerly a jōkamachi (castle town) centered on Edo Castle located in Musashi Province, became the de facto capital of Japan from 1603 as the seat of the Tokugawa shogunate.Edo grew to become one of the largest cities in the world under the …  The eta, hinin and burakumin classes were officially abolished in 1871. Another special way of life, chōnindō, also emerged. In 1636, the Dutch were restricted to Dejima, a small artificial island—and thus, not true Japanese soil—in Nagasaki's harbor.  These academies were staffed mostly with other samurais, along with some buddhist and shinto clergymen who were also learned in Neo-Confucianism and the works of Zhu Xi. Members of the samurai class adhered to bushi traditions, with a renewed interest in Japanese history and in cultivation of the ways of Confucian scholar-administrators, resulting in the development of the concept of bushido (the way of the warrior). The nation had to deal somehow with samurai impoverishment and treasury deficits. New research involving the analysis of tree rings clearly shows the correlation of water scarcity and unrest and revolt in the countryside.  A century after the Shogunate's establishment, problems began to emerge. The Edo period was characterized by an unprecedented series of economic developments (despite termination of contact with the outside world) and cultural maturation, especially in terms of theater, music, and other entertainment. Also during that period, the bakufu commissioned around 350 red seal ships, three-masted, armed trade ships for intra-Asian commerce. As the fortunes of previously well-to-do families declined, others moved in to accumulate land, and a new, wealthy farming class emerged. Newly landless families became tenant farmers, while the displaced rural poor moved into the cities. Among people, cherry blossoms, morning glories, Japanese irises and chrysanthemums were especially popular, and bonsai using deep pots became popular. From: Time Travel to Edo Period Via Highway! In the cities and towns, guilds of merchants and artisans met the growing demand for goods and services. Missionaries were killed. A commercial treaty, opening still more areas to American trade, was forced on the bakufu five years later. The Kojiki, Nihon Shoki, and Man'yōshū were all studied anew in the search for the Japanese spirit. , In Edo, the shogunate set up several schools under its direct patronage, the most important being the neo-Confucian Shōheikō (昌平黌) acting as a de facto elite school for its bureaucracy but also creating a network of alumni from the whole country.