The Presbyterian establishment worked to purge the Episcopalians and heretics, and made blasphemy a capital crime. Following the ‘Union of the Crowns’ of 1603, Edinburgh Castle was rarely visited by the reigning monarch, but from the 1650s it grew into a significant military base. The northern part of Northumbria was cut off from the rest of England by the Old Norse-speaking Danes, significantly weakening what remained of the kingdom. The Oxford Companion to Scottish History, ed. London: Pan. Slum clearance brought about a fall in the death rate, but the lack of new inexpensive housing led to other poor districts becoming more overcrowded and degenerating into slums. During the fifteenth century, Edinburgh was made the royal capital of Scotland and the Palace of Holyrood was built between 1671 and 1678 for Charles II. Edinburgh was one of the most unsanitary towns in Europe. It was first published in three volumes between 1768 and 1771, with 2,659 pages and 160 engravings, and quickly became a standard reference work in the English-speaking world. During the Middle Ages, a small fort called Dun Eiden was built by the Gododdins probably on the Castle Rock, although the exact location is unknown. The earliest known human habitation in the Edinburgh area is from Cramond where evidence has been found of a Mesolithic site dated to c.8500 BC. The Edinburgh Musical Society was constituted in 1728 by well-to-do music lovers. The first stone high rise buildings were constructed in the Royal Mile and were sometimes up to 12 stories high. Introducing MA History.  The Scottish king James II (1430–60) was "born, crowned, married and buried in the Abbey of Holyrood", and James III (1451–88) described Edinburgh in one of his charters as "the principal burgh of our kingdom" (principalior burgus regni nostri). The narrow lanes leading to the north and south, by reason of their steepness, narrowness and dirtiness, can only be considered as so many unavoidable nuisances. 1950 First Military Tattoo performance The decade opened with the first Tattoo which drew some 6000 spectators seated in simple bench and … The infirmary has occupied four sites in the city, 'moving house' three times in three centuries. The city therefore escaped major loss of life and damage during the war and emerged from it almost completely unscathed. Under its famous editor Francis Jeffrey (1773–1850) it promoted Romanticism and Whig politics. , Stiff Presbyterian opposition to King Charles I's attempt to introduce Anglican forms of worship and church governance in the Church of Scotland culminated in the Bishops' Wars of 1639 and 1640, the initial conflicts in the civil war period. A man of inquiring mind could not live in old Edinburgh without becoming a sociologist of sorts."  During the tenth century its northernmost part, which had retained its Brythonic name Lothian, came under the sway of the Kingdom of Scotland. #2 … During this period Edinburgh became a place where the Northumbrian dialect of Old English was spoken and its name acquired the Old English suffix, "-burh". During the confusion which followed Oliver Cromwell's death on 3 September 1658, Monck remained silent and watchful at Edinburgh, careful only to secure his hold on his troops.  The profession of architect flourished, as did the prestige of builders, engineers, and surveyors. Around the year 1500 approximately 12.000 people lived in Edinburgh. Besetzt wurde die Professur erst drei Jahre später.  While Malcolm Canmore (r.1058–1093) kept his court and residence at Dunfermline, north of the Forth, he began spending more time at Edinburgh where he built a chapel for his wife Margaret to carry out her devotions. In Edinburgh there were Dominican friars, dressed in black, and the Augustinian friars, dressed in grey. The experience demonstrated to reformers that future projects had to include cheap new housing. In 1998, the Scotland Act, which came into force the following year, established a devolved Scottish Parliament and Scottish Executive (renamed the Scottish Government since September 2007). This force was decisively defeated by the Angles at the Battle of Catraeth (probably at Catterick). In 934 the Annals of Clonmacnoise record that the English king Æthelstan, who spent much time stamping his authority upon the north, ravaged Scotland to Edinburgh but that he was forced to depart without any great victory. This migration changed the social character of Edinburgh, which Robert Chambers, writing in the 1820s, described as, a kind of double city—first, an ancient and picturesque hill-built one, occupied chiefly by the humbler classes; and second, an elegant modern one, of much regularity of aspect, and possessed almost as exclusively by the more refined portion of society. In 1752 the expansion of Edinburgh was proposed but it is not until 1767 that the plans of the New Town were designed by James Craig, a young unknown architect who won the competition to design the new part of the city. Edinburgh is one of the world's most beautiful capitals - but it has taken more than 1000 years of history to make it the historic city which is known and loved by visitors and Scots alike. By the early 1700s Edinburgh had become overcrowded, polluted, and had developed an incredibly foul smell – which led to … On the same building lived families of all grades and classes, each in its flat in the same stair—the sweep and caddie in the cellars, poor mechanics in the garrets, while in the intermediate stories might live a noble, a lord of session, a doctor or city minister, a dowager countess, or writer; higher up, over their heads, lived shopkeepers, dancing masters or clerks. During the Medieval period, the concept of a friar was founded.  In 1650, following Scottish support for the restoration of Charles Stuart to the throne of England, Edinburgh was occupied by the Commonwealth forces of Oliver Cromwell after the Battle of Dunbar. , In the 12th century (c.1130), King David I, established the town of Edinburgh as one of Scotland's earliest royal burghs, protected by his royal fortress, on the slope below the castle rock. 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